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Types of Actuators and Advancement

What are Actuators?

An actuator is a part of the robot which is like the muscle or arm can help to move it by
converting the input energy into the form of movement also without actuator what is
unable to move.

Types of Actuators

There is a wide range of actuators but mostly following types of actuators are mostly
used in the Robots

1.    Electrical actuators:-

The Actuator gain power by the help of the motor and then convert the electrical
energy input into the mechanical torque. Basically, there are three things in the
electrical actuator which are

  1.                Multi-Turn  valve
  2.               Brake
  3.               Motor

A motor is to give the current or power to the actuator and produce the torque or
force. A motor can be categorized into three types:-

  • DC Motors:- These have a variety of shape and size. The range of the speed is
    from 5000 to 10000 RPM. It can rotate in the clockwise or anticlockwise rotation.
    But these Motors provide the Low Torque.
  • Servo Motors:- The motor which rotates at a specific angle and is expensive. It
    mainly contains gearing, electronics, DC motor and a rotatory Potentiometer. It
    gives the continuous rotation to the Actuator.
  • Stepper Motors:- This motor rotates in specific steps or degrees. It is just like the
    DC Motor and has low torque.

2.    Pneumatic actuators:-

These actuators mainly convert the input energy of vacuum or compressed air at
high temperature either into an output of linear or rotatory movement.These are
safer and they not expensive these are reliable and powerful. These can produce
a large force or torque even from a small level input by the help of the valves
which move the diaphragm and the compressed air is converted into the force.

3.    Hydraulic actuators:-

These actuators mostly contain a cylinder or Motor fluid which they used as
Hydraulic power and then the mechanical operation occurs. The input which is
given to hydraulic actuators in the form of fluid pressure is converted into an
output in the type of linear. oscillatory or rotatory motion. It consists of a hollow
cylinder with a piston. We cannot compressor liquid so as a result a large force
can be gained by it. But this actuator produces Limited acceleration.

Advanced actuators:-

With the Passage of time Technology revolutionized everything. In a field of
actuators, many new terminologies are introduced.

4.    Piezoelectric actuators:-

They convert electrical energy in the form of linear motion which has high speed,
force, and resolution.These are mostly used for semiconductors.

5.    Ultrasonic motor actuators:-

These are much like the electrical Motors gains the Power by the ultrasonic
vibrations of the components which are used in it on the base of the scheme in
which it is assembled.

6.    Magnetic artificial muscle actuators:-

It is driven by the scientist artificially which used the magnetic mechanism to
move and based on the at H.Huxely mechanism for Bionic muscle contraction.
It consists of the small magnetic needle with strings with the Variation of the
time and a magnetic field the linear motion of the object occur which are present
on the needle.

7.    Molecular motors actuators:-

These are the Motors which convert the of one type of the energy and
eventually, convert into the form another type of the energy in molecular motors the
energy is basically gain as a free energy which is released as a result of the
process of the hydrolysis and then this ATP the form of energy is used for
mechanical work.

I’m an electrical engineer and a part-time blogger. I love to Play around with electronic parts (build small robots of any kind). I try to post information that can help others.


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